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Richard was forced to abdicate and although Henry was not next in line, he was declared king by an unlawfully constituted parliament dominated by his supporters.

There is much debate amongst historians about Henry's accession, in part because some see it as a cause of the Wars of the Roses. For Dan Jones, the accession by force of the throne broke principles the Plantagenets had established successfully over two and a half centuries and allowed any magnate with sufficient power and Plantagenet blood to have ambitions to assume the throne. Richard had attempted to disinherit Henry and remove him from the succession.

In desperation, Henry's advisors made the case that Henry was heir male to Henry III and this was supported by thirteenth-century entails. Mortimer informed the new king when Conisburgh, in what was later called the Southampton Plot , attempted place him on the throne instead of Henry's newly crowned son—their mutual cousin—leading to the execution of Conisburgh and the other plotters.

Henry IV was plagued with financial problems, the political need to reward his supporters, frequent rebellions and declining health—including leprosy and epilepsy. Henry Percy Hotspur was defeated and killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury. In , Hotspur's father Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland , supported the Archbishop of York, Richard le Scrope , in another rebellion, after which the elder Percy fled to Scotland and his estates were confiscated. This would probably have led to Henry's excommunication but the church was in the midst of the Western Schism , with competing popes keen on Henry's support; it protested but took no action.

Henry V's victory at the Battle of Agincourt. Henry V of England was a successful and ruthless monarch.

Post-classical history

The war was not a formal, continuous conflict but a series of English raids and military expeditions from until There were six major royal expeditions; Henry himself led the fifth and sixth, but these were unlike the smaller, frequent, provincial campaigns. The terms of the Treaty of Troyes were that Henry's and Catherine's heirs would succeed to the throne of France.

This condition was contested by the Dauphin and the momentum of the war changed. Joan of Arc 's involvement helped the French remove the siege of Orleans [42] and win the Battle of Patay before Joan was captured by the Burgundians, sold to the English, tried as a witch and burned at the stake. The Dauphin was crowned and continued the successful Fabian tactics of avoiding full frontal assault and exploiting logistical advantage. Henry VI proved to be a weak king and vulnerable to the over-mighty subjects who developed private armies of retainers.

Helen Castor — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

Rivalries often spilled over from the courtroom into armed confrontations, such as the Percy—Neville feud. In , Jack Cade raised a rebellion to force the king to address economic problems or abdicate his throne. Society remained deeply unsettled and radical demands continued to be suppressed such as those from the yeoman brothers John and William Merfold. Symbolic representation of the Wars of the Roses in art.

Henry's marriage to Margaret of Anjou prompted criticism from Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York , because it included the surrender of Maine and an extended truce with France. This gave York political influence but he was removed from English and French politics through his appointment as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

Armed conflict was avoided because York lacked aristocratic support and was forced to swear allegiance to Henry. However, when Henry later underwent a mental breakdown, York was named regent. Henry was trusting and not a man of war, but Margaret was more assertive and showed open enmity towards York—particularly after the birth of a male heir that resolved the succession question and assured her position. According to historian Robin Storey, "If Henry's insanity was a tragedy; his recovery was a national disaster". Historian Anthony Goodman suggests that around 50 men were killed; among them were Somerset and two Percy lords, Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland , and Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford , creating feuds that would confound reconciliation attempts despite the shock to the ruling class caused by the armed conflict.

Henry was captured by the opposition when the Nevilles returned and won the Battle of Northampton. The disinheriting of Henry's son Edward was unacceptable to Margaret so the conflict continued. York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield and his head was displayed at Micklegate Bar , York, along with those of Edmund, Earl of Rutland , and Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury—both of whom were captured and beheaded.

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Margaret gained the support of the Scottish queen Mary of Guelders , and with a Scottish army she pillaged into southern England. The alliance was sealed with the marriage of Henry's son Edward to Anne, Warwick's daughter. Edward and Richard, Duke of Gloucester , fled England. When they returned, Clarence switched sides at the Battle of Barnet and Warwick and his brother were killed.

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Henry, Margaret and Edward of Lancaster were caught at the Battle of Tewkesbury before they could escape back to France. Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, was executed on the battlefield and John Beaufort, Marquess of Dorset , was killed in the fighting—meaning that when his brother Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset , was executed two days later, the Beaufort family became extinct in the male line. According to the historian Norman Davies , the plays were constrained by the political and religious requirements of Tudor England.

While they are factually inaccurate, they demonstrate how the past and the House of Lancaster are remembered in terms of myth, legend, ideas and popular misconceptions. Lancastrian cognatic descent from John of Gaunt and Blanche's daughter Phillipa continued in the royal houses of Spain and Portugal. They had been amongst the most ardent supporters of the House of Lancaster and were descended illegitimately from John of Gaunt by his mistress Katherine Swynford.

By some calculations of primogeniture, there were as many as 18 people—including both his mother and future wife—with more right to the throne. By , this figure had increased with the birth of an additional 16 possible Yorkist claimants. His father was Henry VI's maternal half-brother. King's College Chapel, Cambridge. Henry VI continued the architectural patronage begun by his father, founding Eton College and King's College, Cambridge and leaving a lasting educational and architectural legacy in buildings including King's College Chapel and Eton College Chapel.

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See also: County palatine. Main article: Hundred Years' War — Main articles: Wars of the Roses and House of York. Brown, Henry; Summerson, A. L Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Oxford University Press. Digital object identifier: Subscription or UK public library membership required. Castor, Helen Crofton, Ian The Kings and Queens of England. Davies, Norman Davies, R R The Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr.

Fowler, Kenneth Alan Elek Paul Scientific Books Ltd. Goodman, Anthony Griffiths, G.

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Griffiths, R. Harriss, R. Hicks, Michael The Wars of the Roses. Yale University Press. Jones, Dan Lee, Christopher This Sceptred Isle. Penguin Books. View Larger Image. Ask Seller a Question. Title: The King, the Crown, and the Duchy of From , therefore, the Lancastrian kings - unlike their royal predecessors - commanded not only the public authority of the crown, but also the private power of the Duchy of Lancaster.

Until now, this has been seen simply as an advantage to the Lancastrian crown, and as an uncontroversial part of the evolution of a 'royal affinity' during the later middle ages.

Dr Helen R Castor

However, this study makes clear that profound tensions existed between the role of the king and that of his alter ego , the duke of Lancaster. This book examines the complex relationship between the king, the crown and the Duchy of Lancaster at both a national and a local level, focusing particularly on the north midlands and East Anglia and, in so doing, sheds light on the nature and functioning of the late medieval English monarchy. This invigorating and scholarly assessment concentrates particularly on the political society of East Anglia, Derbyshire and Staffordshire, making thereby a significant contribution to regional, as well as to national, history.

Northern History Combines stimulating argument with conceptual clarity and detailed analysis to contribute significantly to our understanding of later medieval English politics. English Historical Review Lucid and scholarly monograh Castor's book will require historians of the period to clarify their thinking about the nature of royal authority and the expectations of local society. Simon Walker, Times Literary Supplement. Visit Seller's Storefront.

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Sir John Curson of Kedleston (d.1406)

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